FAO Meat Market Review: 2021 policy changes

Policy developments affecting the meat sector

Editor's note: The following is a portion of the July 2022 FAO Meat Market Review publication summarizing the salient trends and drivers of meat market developments and significant public policy changes in 2021.

Policy developments affecting meat production, marketing and consumption COVID-19-related production and income support policies Several governments implemented policy measures to support the meat sector, enabling them to cope with disruptions across the meat value chains caused by COVID-19-related social distancing requirements and lockdowns.

  • Canada, in April 2021, approved the federal budget in more than two years, affirming commitments to safeguard the sectors impacted by the COVID-19 and build a resilient, equitable economy. Approximately USD 5.2 billion were allocated for agriculture, including direct investment and programming-related expenditure in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors and  extended support for temporary foreign workers in meeting mandatory quarantine requirements upon arrival.
  • The European Union, in January 2021, extended until 31 December 2021 the State Aid Temporary Framework (SATF) adopted in March 2020 to support the economy in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The European  Commission also expanded the scope of the SATF by increasing the ceilings for specific support measures and allowing the conversion of some repayable instruments into direct grants until the end of 2022. This way, European Union member states can use the flexibility of state aid rules to support their economies while limiting distortions to competition.
  • The United States, in March 2021, launched the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program (CFAP-2), which covered the meat sector among those selected to receive assistance. Under the programme, the Government offered compensation to cover losses due to sudden losses that arose from lower prices at pre-established rates per cattle according to the number of livestock held by farmers on a date selected by the producer from 16 April 2020 through 31 August 2020. The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, also called the COVID-19 Stimulus Package, launched in March 2021, with a total budget of USD 1.9 trillion, including USD 10.4 billion allocated for agriculture, covering debt forgiveness, purchasing and distributing agricultural products, including meat.

Other production and income support policies

Several governments implemented policy measures supporting farmers and processors to cope with droughts or loss of markets due to trade agreements.

  • Argentina, in June 2021, announced a new Livestock Plan (Plan Ganadero), allocating USD 100 million. The plan aimed to increase the sector’s  productivity to boost cattle and bovine meat production by providing technical and financial assistance for the entire production chain, including financing at subsidised rates, granting tax benefits and training in technological improvements and help in technical development. In July 2021, Argentina also announced ARS2 billion (USD 21 million) to finance productive investments in the poultry sector. It aims to increase national production by investing in the whole production value chain, including manufacturing capital goods, thus enhancing poultry meat exports and generating foreign exchange. Financing under the programme can be accessed through different mechanisms, depending on the nature of the business. The loan interest rates were set at 22 to 24 percent, below the annual inflation rate.
  • Canada, in May 2021, launched the Poultry and Egg on-Farm Investment Program (PEFIP), allocating CAD 691 million (USD 529 million) over 10 years to drive innovation and growth of the poultry and egg sector through on-farm investments. Each farm is entitled to an amount proportional to its  quota holding as of 1 January 2021 under Canada’s supply-managed production. Eligible projects included those targeting improvements to production efficiency, responding to consumer preferences, and improving on-farm safety, biosecurity, or environmental sustainability. Eligible projects may consist of new barn construction; upgrades to equipment such as feeding, watering, lighting, ventilation, heating, and comfort systems, leading to energy efficiency and reducing the environmental footprint. Canada also allocated USD 230 million, committing funds through 2029 to compensate for ceding market access commitments to poultry, eggs and dairy processors under the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement with the European Union and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). In August 2021, Canada increased funding for the AgriRecovery Framework to CAD 500 million (around USD 400 million) to cover additional costs farmers had to pay due to droughts and wildfires. This includes initial funding of CAD 100 million (around USD 80 million), announced on 6 August 2021. The funding covers direct assistance to livestock and agricultural producers to cover additional costs of obtaining livestock feed, transport and water.
  • China (mainland), in April 2021, announced a regionalisation strategy, which involves splitting the country into five regions and giving greater responsibility to regions to prevent and control animal disease spreads, including ASF. With the plan’s implementation, China suspended moving pigs between regions other than piglets and pigs for breeding purposes.
  • Cuba, in April 2021, announced the cancellation of a ban introduced in 1963 on cattle slaughter and sale of bovine meat and dairy products without state permission as part of agricultural reforms. Under the new arrangement, farmers are allowed to do as they wish with their livestock once the state quotas are met and the conditions that this will not reduce the cattle herd.
  • The Dominican Republic, in October 2021, launched a project worth DOP 72 million (around USD 1.3 million) to provide technical assistance and financing to small pig producers affected by ASF. The plan promotes restocking other species of animals to provide a livelihood for producers until the authorities certify that restocking pigs is safe. Many countries implemented precautionary measures after the detection of ASF in the Dominican Republic at the end of July 2021, including increased inspections by Colombia and banning pig meat imports by Mexico and Taiwan province of China. 
  • The European Union, in June 2021, accepted the provisional deal agreed with the European Parliament on the key elements of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform, covering the period 2023–2027. The new policy   emphasises the social dimension of agriculture, including adequate   employment conditions for workers, the adoption of ‘greener farming practices,’ support for smaller farms, and performance-based CAP that allows member states freedom to implement tailor-made interventions based on strategic planning. In December 2021, the European Union adopted the CAP agreement, which will begin in 2023.
  • Türkiye, in May 2021, announced that the Turkish Grain Board would provide corn and barley for livestock producers at subsidised prices to offset the increase in feed prices and the decline in profit margins for meat and milk producers.
  • Ukraine, in July 2021, announced the reinstatement of the value added tax (VAT) rate from 14 percent to 20 percent for imports into the territory for certain types of agricultural products, including live animals. The aim is to reduce the risks from higher food prices and create equal conditions for agricultural producers and the processing industry.
  • The United Kingdom, in October 2021, announced that it would fund a private storage aid scheme to enable meat processors to store slaughtered pigs for between three and six months to allow them to be preserved and processed at a later date. The plan also includes measures to allow up to 800 pig butchers to apply for work visas for up to 6 months. As a further measure, the two meat levy bodies, the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board and Quality Meat Scotland, announced payment holidays for levy payers in the pig sector for November 2021.

Consumer-oriented policies

  • China (mainland), in June 2021, launched a price monitoring system to mitigate against fluctuations in domestic pig meat prices through the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). On 7 July 2021, the NDRC announced its intent to purchase frozen pig meat from the market,  representing the second stage of NDRC’s price control mechanism, setting a floor price for pig meat.
  • Malaysia, in December 2021, relaxed rules on importing chicken and a temporary ceiling on retail prices to stabilise prices. The Government allowed the import of whole chickens from abroad, relaxing the policy of not allowing imports of chicken cuts. Viet Nam, in February 2021, announced the National Standard for Chilled Meat, Part 3 (poultry meat). The objective of the standard is to help improve food safety and hygiene management, advance transparency in product labelling, provide a legal framework for businesses producing and trading in these products, and ensure that consumers have access to safe chilled meat.

Policy developments affecting international trade

Tariff and tariff rate quotas

  • Ecuador, in July 2021, issued a resolution lowering tariffs on 667 products, including 43 agricultural products, which became effective on 1 October 2021. The products with lowered tariffs include live bovine animals and their products, ranging from 5 to 20 percent.
  • Ethiopia, in August 2021, raised tariffs on meat and edible offal from 30 percent to 35 percent, as part of an effort to increase the competitiveness of domestic producers by imposing higher tariffs on locally produced products and lower tariffs on raw materials. The Government introduced the new policy while releasing a revised edition of the customs tariff book, covering more than 8 000 tariff line items.
  • Japan, in March 2021, announced that imports of United States bovine meat surpassed the annual safeguard trigger volume established under the United States-Japan Trade Agreement. As a result, tariffs on United States bovine meat increased from 25.8 percent to 38.5 percent for 30 days. beginning 18 March 2021. Meanwhile, the agreement entered its third year of  implementation on 1 April 2021, reducing applicable tariffs further. The agreement expects to eliminate tariff rates for selected meat products on a staggered basis starting from 2021.
  • Kazakhstan, in December 2021, announced the first stage of 2022 meat quotas, which included 2,835 tonnes of bovine meat and 31,500 tonnes of poultry meat. The 2022 volumes and rates remained unchanged from those announced in 2021.
  • Mexico, in June 2021, introduced a new tariff-free quota for meat suppliers from outside North America. The total quota was set at 30,000 tonnes of poultry meat (previously introduced on 23 June 2021), 7 000 tonnes of bovine meat and 10 000 tonnes of pig meat, available until 31 December 2021.
  • The Philippines, in May 2021, increased the yearly tariff rate quota from 54 210 to 254 210 metric tonnes and lowered tariff rates on imported fresh, chilled, and frozen pig meat. In June 2021, the Government announced guidelines for the Minimum Access Volume (MAV) or tariff-rate quota for pig meat, specifying the allocation method of the additional volume of 200 000 metric tonnes (MT), authorised via Executive Order No. 133. Accordingly, up to 70 percent of the additional MAV (i.e., 140 000 MT) was available from July to October 2021, with the remaining 30 percent (60 000 MT) eligible from November 2021 through January 2022. MAV import clearances are allocated on a first-come, first-served basis.
  • South Africa, in August 2021, renewed anti-dumping duties on bone-in chicken imports from Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom for additional five years. Duties were confirmed as first imposed in 2015 at 73.33, 22.81 and 30.09 percent, respectively. Earlier this year, the South African poultry association applied anti-dumping duties on imported poultry meat from five countries, including Brazil and four European Union member countries, namely Denmark, Ireland, Poland and Spain, with the outcome expected during the first quarter of 2022 after the conclusion of an investigation process.
  • The United States, in March 2021, suspended retaliatory duties for four months from 4 March 2021 on British pig meat. The United States initially imposed the duties over the aircraft subsidies dispute with the European Union but suspended aiming to resolve the dispute.
  • Viet Nam, in November 2021, issued a decree revising its MFN (most favoured nation) tariff rates, including frozen pig meat. Under the revision, MFN rates for frozen pig meat imports will decrease from 15 to 10 percent as from 1 July 2022.

Diseases-related protocol agreements and  import restrictions

Many governments worldwide imposed import restrictions or bans to prevent the transboundary spread of animal diseases and the COVID-19 virus or entered into agreements with trading partners to protect export/import businesses from possible animal disease outbreaks.

African swine fever

‘Regionalisation’ or ‘zoning’ agreements gained popularity, allowing pig meat imports to continue from regions officially recognised as ASF-free even when some areas within the country have reported outbreaks.

  • Canada, in March 2021, signed a protocol with the United States to guide bilateral trade in the event of detecting ASF in its wild pigs, without cases in farm swine stocks. In the event of detecting the ASF virus in wild pigs, the two countries agreed to immediately stop trading live swine, swine germplasm and untreated swine products while allowing trade to continue in products treated to make the ASF virus ineffective.
  • China (mainland), in December 2021, recognised zoning for France in the event of ASF outbreaks.
  • Japan, in January 2021, reopened its market to Hungarian pig meat for the first time since April 2018, following the implementation of a new ASF regionalisation protocol. Japan, in September 2021, also lifted a ban on pig meat imports from Belgium and Czechia while removing age-based  restrictions on imports of Danish bovine meat.
  • Kazakhstan, in February 2021, lifted a ban on pig meat imports from several regions in the Russian Federation, first imposed in December 2020 over ASF concerns.
  • The Republic of Korea, in October 2021, lifted a ban on pig meat imports from Belgium, which had existed since September 2018 due to an ASF  outbreak, as Belgium was officially declared disease-free from ASF by the OIE on 21 December 2020.
  • Singapore, in March 2021, signed a regionalisation agreement with Germany, allowing pig meat imports from ASF-free regions in Germany.
  • Viet Nam, in March 2021, entered a regionalisation agreement with Germany, allowing pig meat imports from ASF-free regions in Germany. Similarly, in October 2021, Viet Nam agreed to a zoning arrangement with Canada to allow safe trade from Canada in the event of an ASF outbreak. However, in June 2021, suspended live pig imports from Thailand after ASF was detected in a batch of imported hogs in May 2021.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and lumpy skin disease

Import restrictions due to BSE, FMD or lumpy skin diseases continued to affect the bovine meat trade during the reference period.

  • China (mainland), in July 2021, banned the import of cattle and cattle  products from Lao People’s Democratic Republic to prevent the spread of lumpy skin disease, first detected in April 2021. In September 2021, China banned bovine meat imports from the United Kingdom of cattle under 30 months of age after a case of BSE. China lifted the ban only in 2018 after more than two decades of existence due to an earlier case of BSE.
  • Mexico, in July 2021, signed an animal health protocol with Belize to  guarantee cattle market access to Mexico, which requires live cattle to be free from identified diseases and attestation of no contact with wild animal species known to be reservoirs for the diseases. Mexico had signed similar protocols with Nicaragua and Guatemala, establishing disease-free regional certifications. 
  • The Philippines, in October 2021, imposed a temporary ban on bovine meat from the United Kingdom over BSE concerns. The ban applies to cattle  slaughtered after 31 August 2021.
  • South Africa, in May 2021, confirmed an outbreak of the FMD disease in cattle in KwaZulu-Natal Province. The Government negotiated agreements  with trading partners to continue to trade in safe commodities, including heat-treated meat and dairy products, deboned and matured bovine meat and other derived products. However, Botswana and Eswatini announced trade restrictions.
  • Uganda, in April 2021, banned the sale and movement of livestock and their products in the Kiruhura district to stop the FMD spread. 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

Several countries announced HPAI-related import restrictions during the reference period.

  • Azerbaijan, in February 2021, suspended imports of all types of live birds and poultry products from some regions of the Czechia, Germany and the United Kingdom.
  • Belarus, in January 2021, restricted imports of live birds and poultry products from some regions of Sweden and Hungary.
  • Botswana, in June 2021, banned imports of live poultry and poultry products from South Africa after outbreaks of HPAI virus in several provinces. In addition to the ban, the Government also cancelled all related import permits, except for transporting fresh poultry products from other countries moving through South Africa.
  • China (mainland), in April 2021, suspended imports from the Republic of Korea (one region) and Sweden (one county); and in May 2021 from the Netherlands and Poland.
  • China, Hong Kong SAR, in October 2021, suspended poultry imports from the Russian Federation due to the detection of an HPAI outbreak. Similar bans have been in effect since May 2021 from some regions in Germany, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, South Africa and Viet Nam for the same reason. 
  • Mozambique, in April 2021, banned importing live birds (domestic and wild), bird meat, feathers and eggs from South Africa. The ban covered all poultry products used in animal feed or for agricultural or industrial purposes. Namibia, in May 2021, banned imports of poultry and poultry products from South Africa.
  • The Philippines, in March 2021, halted imports of Russian poultry meat. The Philippines also suspended poultry meat imports from the Czechia in mid-February 2021.
  • The Russian Federation, in January 2021, imposed import restrictions and banned the transit of live poultry through its territory between January and March 2021 from several European countries.
  • Saudi Arabia, in June 2021, suspended poultry meat imports from three French provinces due to an HPAI outbreak after a ban imposed two days before on Ukraine’s largest poultry meat export facility for the same reason.

    Several countries lifted HPAI-related import restrictions under zoning arrangements during the reference period.
  • The European Union, in March 2021, resumed imports of Ukrainian poultry meat, accepting the measures taken to control the spread of HPAI in the areas affected in December 2020.
  • Ghana, in April 2021, lifted a ban on imports of poultry meat from the Russian Federation, imposed earlier due to an HPAI outbreak.
  • Japan, in August 2021, lifted the ban on poultry and egg imports from Ukraine, which was imposed in December last year due to the spread of the HPAI outbreak in that country.
  • Kuwait, in January 2021, lifted the ban on Russian poultry meat imports imposed in September 2020 due to HPAI concerns.
  • The Philippines, in August 2021, resumed poultry meat imports from the Netherlands, which was imposed in January 2021 following HPAI outbreaks. A similar ban on poultry meat from Ukraine was lifted on 23 August 2021.
  • Poland reported 202 cases of HPAI outbreaks between 1 January and 19 April 2021, leading to import bans in several countries. However, these import restrictions were lifted by several countries, as the country declared freedom from HPAI in August 2020.
  • The Republic of Korea, in August 2021, lifted a temporary prohibition on imports of chicken meat and pet birds (birds other than poultry) from the Philippines. The ban was imposed in March 2020 due to an HPAI outbreak.
  • The Russian Federation, in March 2021, lifted a ban on hatching eggs and day-old chicks from 21 companies in the Netherlands, accepting the measures to control HPAI spread. 
  • The United Arab Emirates, in December 2021, lifted a ban on imports of eggs and other poultry products from India. The ban was implemented five years ago due to concerns over HPAI.
  • The United States, in October 2021, authorized poultry meat imports from Poland following a series of audits to ensure that the country’s poultry inspection system matches US requirements.

Safety standard-related meat import licenses and restrictions

Several countries issued import licenses based on agreed food safety  standards or protocols, accepting specific processing methods or relaxing certain chemical compounds.

  • Argentina, in June 2021, announced the resumption of poultry meat shipments to the European Union. Argentine National Service of Agri-Food Health and Quality had voluntarily halted shipments on 13 March 2021 following an EU audit.
  • Brazil, in August 2021, accepted the new Export Certificate model for importing bovine meat and offal from the United States.
  • Canada, in May 2021, obtained negligible-country risk status for BSE from the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as no BSE cases have been reported since 2015. This will help Canada in exploring new market access opportunities for bovine meat.
  • Cambodia, in February 2021, opened the market for importing fresh and processed pig meat from Brazil with the same standards as its internal market.
  • China (mainland), in May 2021, approved imports of meat from 31 new US establishments. On 7 April, China had already permitted imports from 19 other US meat processing plants. More than 100 establishments from over 20 countries, including Australia, Argentina, the European Union and the United States, had to halt shipments to China under this rule. However, some have since regained market access. China, in December 2021, resumed bovine meat imports from Brazil and Namibia. In the case of Brazil, shipments were halted on 4 September 2021 after confirming two cases of ‘atypical’ BSE. China imposed the import ban on Namibia at the end of September due to several instances of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.
  • Egypt, in July 2021, issued a decree extending the shelf-life requirements for frozen fish and beef liver until December 2021.
  • India, in September 2021, published a notification clarifying the date of the bill of lading and the arrival of the consignment to Indian ports. The Clarification refers to notification No. 25/2015- 2020, authorising the import of consignment of soybean meal and soy cake derived from genetically  engineered soybeans. The importation of soybean meal and cakes is required, given that India’s soybean production in 2021/2022 is estimated to be lower than its earlier assessment due to a negative impact from the uneven rainfall distribution this year. This measure aims to ensure adequate feed supplies for the poultry, livestock, dairy and aquaculture sectors.
  • Japan, in March 2021, allowed imports of minced meat and meat preparations from Ireland.
  • The Russian Federation, in September 2021, signed a protocol with China on terms for checks, quarantine and requirements for veterinary certificates to allow the access of Russian bovine meat to the Chinese market.
  • Saudi Arabia, in February 2021, extended the acceptance period of shelf-life from 70 to 120 days for United States bovine meat products, providing the flexibility to purchase larger quantities for Saudi importers. However, in August 2021, the Government suspended implementation of the measure introduced in May 2021 that reduced the shelf-life of frozen chicken from one year to three months, as Brazil perceived this measure as trade protectionism and successfully appealed, together with other exporting nations, based on Codex Alimentarius and other internationally established norms.
  • Türkiye, in March 2021, issued a directive allowing imports of fattening cattle from April 2021 from countries and those complying with the health and technical criteria determined by the Government.
  • The United Arab Emirates, in April 2021, authorised pig meat imports from Argentina for consumption by the large expatriate community.
  • The United States, in December 2021, published updated import regulations on ovine meat purchases. This rule removes remaining BSE import restrictions on sheep, goats and their products and aligns the rules with the current scientific understanding of BSE.
  • Viet Nam, in November 2021, Issued Decision No. 205, providing guidelines for small and medium swine farms and households on the biosecurity farming process to prevent ASF outbreaks.

Market access

Several countries introduced meat import bans or restrictions during the reference period, citing several factors, including the need to protect domestic
producers, violations of food safety standards and chemical traces and prohibited growth hormones found in imported meat consignments. Meanwhile, several countries opened their markets to foreign meat products.

  • Algeria, in January 2021, suspended red meat imports to rationalise imports and encourage domestic production.
  • China (mainland), in November 2021, suspended imports of bovine meat and other products from Lithuania on lack of documentation. China (mainland), in September 2021, authorised meat imports from 17 new meat processing plants in the United States, boosting bovine meat exports to China due to the current ban on Brazil’s bovine meat exports over BSE concerns and supply constraints from Argentina and Australia. 
  • Kenya, in December 2021, lifted a ban on Ugandan poultry products, including chicken and eggs.
  • Mexico, in September 2021, opened its market to pig meat from the United Kingdom for the first time.
  • The Russian Federation, in September 2021, extended the foodstuffs embargo, including meat and meat products, until December 2022. The ban was initially imposed in August 2014 on products from Australia, Canada, the European Union, Norway and the United States. As of 13 August 2015, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Montenegro have been included in the list of these countries, as well as Ukraine from 11 January 2016. In December 2020, the Russian Federation extended the food embargo to the United Kingdom. The Russian Federation, in October 2021, approved imports from three major Brazilian meat exporters and in November 2021, granted approval for bovine and pig meat imports from 12 Brazilian facilities.
  • Saudi Arabia, in May 2021, banned poultry meat imports from 11 Brazilian meat plants without offering a reason for imposing the restriction.

 Export restrictions

  • Argentina, in January 2021, established reference prices applicable to bovine meat cuts exported to several Asian destinations, including the Republic of Korea, China, the Philippines, Japan and Thailand. The General Customs Directorate established the policy, utilising the ‘witness prices’ of the Federal Administration of Public Revenues, aiming to detect under-invoicing in exports. In March 2021, the Government extended the reference prices for specific pig meat cuts exported to the same Asian destinations. In March 2021, Argentina suspended 15 meat exporters for violating industry regulations related to competition law and tax evasion. In May 2021, Argentina imposed a 30-day ban on beef exports, aiming to lower domestic prices by temporarily increasing the domestic supply. The resolution exempted exports to overseas markets where Argentina has quotas. In June 2021, the Government lifted the beef export ban but introduced a cap on monthly beef exports at half the average volume exported in 2020, valid until December 2021. Again, in September 2021, the Government announced lifting the cap on bovine meat exports at 50 percent of normal volumes imposed under the national Decree 408/2021 on 22 June 2021. This removal of the cap allowed exporters to begin bovine meat shipments from older cows typically used for manufactured bovine meat. However, the existing restrictions on exports of higher quality cuts remained in place. In December 2021, the Government extended the suspension on exports of some bovine meat cuts until the end of 2023 and removed restrictions on exports of meat from older cows, commonly used for processing bovine meat exported to China.
  • Brazil, in September 2021, suspended bovine meat exports to China following two cases of ‘atypical’ BSE found in two domestic meat plants. For the same reason, Egypt, Indonesia and the Islamic Republic of Iran banned bovine meat imports from Brazil. The Philippines and Saudi Arabia removed import bans quickly, as the risk was considered negligible. The Russian Federation imposed bans on meat processing units in two affected Brazilian states: Mato Grasso and Minas Gerais.
  • New Zealand, in April 2021, halted exports of livestock by sea following a transition period of two years, citing animal welfare concerns, in a move that is likely to impact main trading partners, including Australia and China.
  • The Plurinational State of Bolivia, in April 2021, suspended bovine meat exports temporarily to guarantee domestic supply and prevent prices from rising.

Trade agreements

  • The United Kingdom, in June 2021, agreed to allow tariff-free imports of all Australian agrifood products within 15 years. Under the proposal, tariffs will be eliminated as the deal comes into force. Still, tariff rate quotas and safeguard volumes will continue to apply for periods ranging between 5 and 15 years for the most sensitive products, notably bovine and sheep meats, sugar and cheese.
  • In December 2021, the Government signed an agreement with Australia for tariff rate quotas (TRQs) on importing bovine and ovine meat over a transition period. TRQs were set at 35 000 tonnes for bovine and 25 000 tonnes for ovine meat, increasing at regular annual increments over ten years to reach 110 000 tonnes for bovine meat and 75 000 tonnes for ovine meat. Any product exceeding this quantity will be subject to the United Kingdom’s MFN (most favoured nation) tariffs. From years 10 to 15, there will be product-specific safeguards, which in effect increase the tariff-free bovine imports incrementally to 170000 tonnes and ovine meat to 125 000 tonnes by year 15, with a 20 percent tariff on any imports that exceed this quantity.

To read the full report, click here. 

Reference: FAO. 2022. Meat Market Review 2021. Rome.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

© 2000 - 2024 - Global Ag Media. All Rights Reserved | No part of this site may be reproduced without permission.